Text size and color
In this article, we will try to answer the following questions concerning the accessibility of texts in web pages:
- What size should I use for the texts?
- What is the minimum font size to respect?
- What color can I use for the text?
What do the guidelines say ? #
The WCAG do not impose a minimum size or colors for texts. However two criteria must be taken into consideration:
Text size enlargement #
If the guidelines do not impose a minimum size for characters, criterion 1.4.4 indicates that the user must be able to increase text size up to 200% without loss of content or functionality. To comply with this criterion, it is essential to test. The procedure to increase text size is available on the following page: Text size enlargement.
Sometimes the sizing of certain blocks of text, in particular using sizes in pixels, can lead to loss of information (truncated texts), it is therefore advisable to use relative units (%, em, rem ...).
Color contrast #
The guidelines do not require the use or even prohibit the use of certain colors for texts. However, a light gray text on a white background, for example, could be difficult. It is therefore essential to check that the text color and the background color provide a sufficient level of contrast (see levels below). This can be done easily with help of tools.
Criterion 1.4.3 of the standard details the required contrast levels.
For standard texts:
- size less than 24px: contrast of 4.5:1 minimum
- size greater than or equal to 24px: contrast of 3:1 minimum
For bold texts:
- size less than 18.5px: contrast of 4.5:1 minimum
- size greater than or equal to 18.5px: contrast of 3:1 minimum
For non-underlined links
- contrast of 3:1 minimum with the surrounding text and with the background color
The criterion mentions a few exceptions subject to no constraint, in particular the texts of inactive elements (a button appearing grayed out for example), the texts forming part of a logo or a brand name.
What about users ? #
The guidelines do not impose a minimum size because it assumes that it is possible to enlarge the text if necessary. In fact, users do not always adjust the size of the text to their needs, due to a lack of habit or ignorance of the possibilities offered to them. This is why it is important that the default size is sufficient to ensure reading comfort.
The size and the color are not the only characteristics which come into play on the readability of a text, indeed the typeface or the use of text in italics can have important consequences. You will find some additional recommendations on this subject in the editorial content section .